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Abstracts 2013

№6 (Soviet and post-soviet cases)

V. G Shjukin. Mythopoesis of the city and the century (four songs about Moscow)

The article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the four songs about Moscow, written in different epochs of the Soviet period of history. These are “The song of the old horse carrier” (1935), “The song about Moscow” from the film “The pig-tender and the shepherd” (1941), “I walk around Moscow” (1964), and “Alexandra” from the film “Moscow does not believe in tears” (1979). The analysis allowed the author to reveal the significant features of the mental and the artistic style of the four different epochs, which had reflected in those songs. Each of them marks a unique model of the world, specified by a certain emotional and ideological orientation of the world-view. The first model (the early 1930s) is defined as a compromiseconformist: it attempts to conciliate the everyday patriarchal habits of the NEP-period with the desire for comfort, scientific and technological, and social advance. The second model, appeared in the pre-war years, can be called pseudo-sacral and to the highest degree utopian. It most adequately expresses the essence of the “socialist dream”. In the years of the Khrushchev thaw the third model emerged, combining the fashionable in those times neorealism with the utopian idealism, expressed in the relatively soft form. And, finally, the forth model of the world, in which the 1970s’ mentality has reflected, and which logically completes the Soviet period of history, — the organic model, with a slight touch of historic fatalism. It appealed to the “eternal”, objective laws of nature and traditional values.

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O. L. Lejbovich, N. V. Shushkova “The individual staring” in the space of the PostSoviet city

In the form of a dialogue between a sociologist and a culture expert the issue of a man in a large modern Russian city is being discussed in the article. The sociological tradition which has raised the problem of the individual in the urbanized space is being reconstructed. The modern Russian city is considered as a conflict field between the Soviet object area, and the new human relations bourgeois by their nature. The question of a social nature of a city dweller is being raised: whether he is a special anthropological type, or it is only about some extra cultural features of a businessman, fabric worker, office manager? The authors find in the city dweller the typological features emerging in the different epochs. The modern city dweller is considered first of all as the individual consuming, living in the space of the myth.

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A. S. Shapiro Overcoming the Soviet legacy: Historical museums and memorials of the victims of the Holocaust as «the site of memory» of Jewish settlement in the urban space of Ukraine.

The article considers the modern politics of memory of the Ukrainian society, which does not include in the national historical narrative the events connected with one of the most numerous ethnic national minorities of Ukraine. Here the symbols of Sovietness (“Sovetskost”) in the post-Soviet space are the lacking sites of memory in the city space, connected with the Jewish people who have been recognized marginal for the national project. Thus while analyzing the modern museumization and memoralization of the Holocaust victims the author revealed not yet overwhelmed Soviet ideological clichés in which the Jews are pictured as “the others” to Ukrainian history, and the national identity construction is based on the image of the titular social community.

pdf (Russian)

 

I. E. Vasiliev From avant-garde to classics: the crisis of leftist art and the problem of the Soviet poets’ creative evolution.

The article is devoted to the problem of avant-garde’s development in the changing conditions of the Soviet reality, with a glance at social and biographical factors of transformation and movement of art toward the classical art paradigm.

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M.V. Vorobyova Images of the conformists in the texts of culture of the Soviet society in 1960-1980.

The article is devoted to the images of conformists in the Soviet official and unofficial art. Author analyses the images of conformists in Soviet movies and samizdat. An attempt to understand and explain the peculiarities of perception, representation and social attitude towards the conformism and conformists was made. The attitude to the conformists and their perception was negative both in official and unofficial Soviet art and different strata of the Soviet society (dissidents and loyalists). Special ideology of the Soviet government was the basis of the negative attitude to the conformism and conformists made up by the official Soviet media.

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S. I. Bikova Visual evidences of soviet past: special aspects of commemoration practices in modern industrial city

The article covers the problem of disappearing and returning past on the example of tragic events of 1930s. Not only the names, but also the faces of people that had suffered from the unjust accusations and cruel sentences, being concealed for a long time by the regime, were opened only in the 1990s. Besides the memorial complex to the victims of political repressions placed the 12th kilometer of Moscow highway in Ekaterinburg, we have the State Archive of the Sverdlovsk region. The employees of the State Archive hold exhibitions allowing seeing the judicial and investigatory records carried out in 1930s. These visual documents give evidences of the absurd accusations (e. g., the record of teachers convicted for the damage of the portraits of Stalin and other Soviet leaders that were shot in unintentionally by pupils).

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№5 (Regional identity in Russia)

D.N. Zamyatin Geo-cultural branding of territories: the conceptual grounds

Key words: geo-cultural branding, brand, territory, geo-culture, territorial identity

Any territory – a village, a town, a small locality, a large region, a country, a macroregion, etc. – can be represented as a dedicated, thoroughly structured image. The image of the territory can be constructed, formed, as a geo-cultural brand. The article is devoted to the search for the conceptual grounds for the creation of these brands. The author refines the notions: image, geo-culture, geo-cultural space, image of the territory, figurative-geographical map. The article offers the characteristic of the geo-cultural branding of territories possible stages.

pdf (Russian)

A.O. Bulina Territory brand as crucial component of its potential for development

Key words: brand territory, socio-cultural sphere, creative class

City and place branding has become increasingly popular in recent times. It was picked up by the Russian regions. Perhaps, in this case a gap between Russia and Western countries will benefit, since branding professionals will take into account experience, both positive and negative. It affects primarily the impact of the brand on the territory through the prism of human flows: tourist and professional and other. City or territory brand can be seen a marker in overcoming the problems associated with asymmetric and incomplete information. Building brand and marketing strategy for Russian regions can and should take into account previous experience but with caution on its own character.

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M. Yu. Timofeev Russian cities and regions as (post) industrial brands

Keywords: brand, city, state, capital, birthplace, center, an industrial city, an industrial region

The article investigates the role and place of the industrial potential and heritage cities and regions of Russia with their branding and rebranding. The refinement of the concept of «brand» is given. The analysis of (post-) industrial resources in terms of a system approach is made. Industrial component of brand architecture is compared with other symbolic resources.

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E.V. Golovneva Regional identity as a form of collective identity and it`s structure

Key words: regional identity, structure of regional identity, local, sense of place, collective identity.

This paper deals with the consideration of theoretical model of regional identity and characterization of cognitive, axiological, emotional and regulative components in its structure. The defined components are considered to be the ways of description and creating of the regional identity. A specific attention is being paid to peculiarities of regional identity as a form of collective identity on base of characterization of structural components of this phenomenon.

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M.V. Nazukina Major trends ranking of Russia’s Arctic regions

Keywords: Arctic, macro-region, regional identity

The article analyzes the basic images that compose the Arctic identity in Russia’s Arctic Regions. Identified the following meanings constituting singularity space as macro-Arctic Russia: climatic, national, socio-cultural, economic, geographic and symbolical.

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A.A. Musiyezdov The territorial identity in contemporary society: a theoretical analysis

Keywords: territorial identity, identity, territory, branding.

The article deals with analysis of specificities of territorial identities in contemporary society. Globalization processes affect different aspects of social life and problematize territorial identity. Various social actors faced with the necessity of expression their own distinctness and independence in these circumstances. The features of modern society that are of fundamental importance for the formation and functioning of territorial identities are the change in the balance of society and territory, on the one hand, and the change of identification mechanisms themselves, on the other hand. This leads to an increasing necessity of regional images designing. In this connection it is important to distinguish the formation of territorial images to promote sites on the one hand, and to provide a positive self of local inhabitants on the other hand. Mixing of these goals leads to inefficiency of practical action.

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O.V. Ignatyeva, O.V. Lysenko One project analyses: “Perm cultural revolution” in sociologist’s eyes

Kew words: Perm cultural project, city identity, cultural politics, city society, social strata of the city society, city branding, territorial marketing

The article considers the Perm cultural project realization experience – the ambitious program of the cultural development of the region that was being implemented in 2008 – 2012 in the Perm region. On the basis of the modern cities’ sosieties analyses, and relying on the field research, document analyses, and personal surveys data, the authors analyse the key ideas of the project, the reaction of different social strata of the city society towards it, and some of its consequences. The draft version of the conditions required for the successful implementation of the projects dealing with the cultural politics of Russian regions and cities is presented in the article.

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L. E. Dobreitsina Branding Industrial Town: In Search for Meanings, Problems and Perspectives (the case of Nizhny Tagil).

Key words: Ural, branding of industrial city, Nizhny Tagil

The article is written as a reflection on the possibilities of brand development for Nizhny Tagil, a typical Ural industrial town. The author considers the positives and negatives of “industrial town” brand and the opportunities presented in this regard by traditional crafts – namely, Tagil painted trays, and also by natural resources, i.e. malachite. The two brand themes proposed here are already partially being realized in Tagil, but, in author’s opinion, they could benefit from more vigorous development: Tagil as a town of craftsmen (inventors, artists) and Tagil as a domain of Demidov family (the famous industrialists and philanthropists). This text provides justification of these two brands both from the historical point of view, and based on the realities of contemporary life. The conclusion is that, by complementing each other, these two themes will help to realize the main and obvious brand of Tagil as an industrial town, a factory town – by doing this on a substantially better, more positive, “humanized” level.

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L.M. Gavrilina “Kaliningrad text” as representation of regional identity

Key words: self-identity, identity, identity crisis, regional identity, local text, super-text, communication

The article addresses local texts as a representation of the regional identity and as a form and the method of its creation. During the two recent decades there has been a real boom of local texts which became a reaction vis-à-vis the existing identity crisis. This is the way for local communities to establish “the local order against background of a global chaos” in the context of the “liquid modernity” (Z. Bauman), by trying to make its space more meaningful through constructing special features of their locus. The author of the article defines the phenomenon of the “Kaliningrad text” as a “local super-text” that has emerged as a manifestation of the Kaliningrad sub-culture and representation of a regional identity. The article emphasizes structural characteristics of the “Kaliningrad super-text”, its key themes and tunes, the stages of its genesis and trends of its development.

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L. V. Bekh Fine ceramics in the context of polymorphism Ukrainian cultural space in the 17th century

Key words: fine ceramic, functioning, Ukraine, polymorphism, porcelain, faience The article is devoted to features the functioning of fine ceramics on the territory of Ukraine in the 17th century.

This article briefly examines the specificity process of gradual inculcation of the porcelain and faience in everyday life of the Ukrainian elite

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V. N. Konstantinova Urban and rural identities: methodological aspects and some results of the oral history researches of images of cities of Pryazovya and urbanization processes in the region

Key words: oral history expedition, Pryazovya, identity, urbanization, townspeople, peasants.

The article presents the methodology and results of the oral history expeditions aimed at studying the urban and rural identities in the context of the research of the Northern Pryazovya citizens’ perception of peasant-settlers and their place in the social structure of cities. Materials of these oral history expeditions give the opportunity to see through the eyes of the Northern Pryazovya inhabitants, of the first half of the twentieth century, the urbanization processes of this period; to make some observations about how deeply in the minds of the urban population of this region rooted myths and stereotypes about peasant-settlers and vice versa. The urbanization processes have been one of the most significant characteristics of the Northern Pryazovya history from the last quarter of the XVІII century. It is substantiated that the rural element played a prominent role in the urban colonization of the region; the character of perception by traditional rural population of Pryazovya of new settlements in a certain extent influenced the course of urbanization; the formation of «urban lifestyle» has undergone a significant impact on the part of the rural population life of the region; the categories «Own» -«Alien» were among the key in the perception by the peasant population of the region of the urban citizens; the cities since the time of their appearance played a role of outposts of policy of unification and centralization in the region, which was one of the reasons of the ambiguous attitude of the local peasants to the urban way of life.

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I.I.Lyman Anti-»city of brides»?: The image of Zaporozhye as «Cossack male union», or «Women were not allowed on Sich»

Key words: the image of the city, Cossacks, Zaporozhzhye Sech, Zaporozhzhye, gender, myth, stereotype.

Complex of problems associated with the formation of the image of Zaporozhzhye is considered in the context of reflections about the nature of the relationship between historical realities and myths, about the mechanisms of formation of the latter, about the specifics of influence on the images of certain areas of the real facts, events, processes and trends that have occurred in the past, their refraction in the folk tradition. Particular attention is paid to the stereotypes about celibacy of Zaporozhzhya Cossacks, the existence of Zaporozhzhya Sich on the island of Khortytsya, about city Zaporozhye as the «heart» of the Cossack land. Case study of Zaporozhzhye is indicative in terms of stereotypical characters that generate regional identity.

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O.V. Riabov «Sveta from Ivanovo» as the Mirror of the Snow Revolution

Key words: «Sveta from Ivanovo», 2011–13 Russian protests, political mobilization, Orientalism, Postcolonial studies, capital and province, regional identity

The case-study deals with representations of a young supporter of United Russia, Svetlana Kuritsyna (a.k.a. «Sveta from Ivanovo») in the discourse of the Snow revolution in Russia. The author points out that her image was exploited by both the protesters and authorities in political mobilization. The article demonstrates the liberal opposition’s attitudes to the Russian province that shapes social support of the protests.

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T.B. Ryabova, I.N. Codina, L.V. Bunicheva «The City of the Brides»?: On the role of gender markers in regional identity.

Keywords: Gender markers, gender stereotypes, masculinity, femininity, regional identity, city image, city brand.

The paper analyzes gender markers inclusion in regional identification basing on sociological research in the city of Ivanovo. The authors examine shared attitudes to the specifics of Ivanovo masculinity and femininity. Ivanovo citizens explain such specifics by special conditions of the “City of Brides”, linked with supposed gender imbalance in the city. The paper shows how such stereotypes influence the evaluation of the city symbols and the city image

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E. Pankratova Life satisfaction in the “city of brides”

Keywords: life satisfaction, subjective evaluations, factors influencing life satisfaction, subjective well-being.

The article is devoted to the analysis of life satisfaction phenomenon. Treatments of the concept of foreign and domestic scientists are given. Various ways of life satisfaction assessment are analyzed. The results of the author’s sociological research (May, 2013) are given in article. The survey purpose is to study various aspects of Ivanovo population life satisfaction. As a result of research factors, influencing life satisfaction, are revealed.

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V. N. Kalyuzhniy. Ukraine I love, but … (about one aphorism of Lubomyr Husar)

Key words: Ukraine, East-West, Husar, structure, syntax, Semantics, logic, opposition, homeland, love.

The maxim of Cardinal Lubomyr Husar (Ukrainian Church): «Between East and West Ukraine there is no division, there is a separation between those who like the Ukraine, and who does not love her» is analyzed. The work is done in a structurally-semiotic way. The syntax, semantics and the logical structure of the utterance is studied. The phrase is seen in the political, cultural, and theological contexts. Peaceful at first glance judgment turns out to be confrontational.

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№4  (Russian Bear)

J. A. Koshkarova The perm model of an archetypical image of a bear

Key words: an image of a bear, archetype, mediator, the myth about a bear, а perm model

A bear is the most ancient image which many peoples of the northern hemisphere worshipped since the Primitive epoch. For the centuries the image of a bear has changed greatly, having interlaced with other religious and mythological images. This article is devoted to question of definition of essence of Perm model of an image of a bear. Reverence for a bear is an important element of culture and ethnic traditions of Perm Finns. The image of a bear from the Permian Finns contributed significantly to the close contacts with the Ob-Ugrians, preserving the traditional beliefs and with the Orthodox Russian people. Perm model is the «transitional», it combines the features of both hunting and agrarian culture. Perm model of an image of a bear includes the following motives: totem ancestor, descendant of the heavenly father and beings of the lower world, the man, a husband or a wife, the owner of the forest, the owner of the bear species, the sorcerer, the mythical hero, a cultural hero.

pdf (Russian)

A. Rossomahin, V. Uspensky, D. Khrustalev His Majesty Bear. Dedicated to the 400th anniversary of the House of Romanovs

Key words Russian bear, Russia in the Western eyes, personification of nations, satirical prints, political caricature, Catherine II, Paul I, Alexander I, Nicholas I, Napoleon Bonaparte, Great Britain, Turkey, France

The article dwells upon four British satirical prints (XVIII – XIX cc.) which portray rulers of Russia — Catherine II, Paul I, Alexander I, and Nicholas I — as «Russian bears». The authors point out that these pictures reflect the British version of satirical visualization of Russianness.

pdf (Russian)

G. Gailite The Bear and Latvia: Images of Latvian – Russian relations in caricature

Key words: Latvian caricature, Latvian – Russian relations, image of the “Russian Bear”

The article analyses how caricaturists represents Latvian – Russian relations with help of image of the «Russian bear». The author shows history, meanings, types, and functions of this image. She points out that the uses of the image help to revive negative stereotypes about Russians.

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I. Hudabiunigg “The Russian bear dances until dawn”: The animal metaphor for Russia and its representatives in German media (2000 – 2013)

Key words: «Russian bear», image of Russia in Germany, contemporary German media

The article dwells on the image of Russia as a bear in contemporary German media. The studies changes in portraying Russia and its representatives in 2000 – 2013 in comparison with 1990s.

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A. de Lazari, O. Riabov, M. Żakowska «Russian bear» in the Western-European propaganda of the First World War

Key words: «Russian bear», the Western image of Russia, propaganda of the First World War, the Western-European caricature.

The article deals with the image of Russia as the bear in Western-European discourse of the First World War. The authors point out that due to polysemanticism of the bear symbol the propagandists of both allies and adversaries of Russia exploited the image very actively.

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D. Tsykalov Image of “Russian bear” in the patriotic caricature during the First World War (July 1914 — February 1917)

Key words: “Russian bear”, relations Russia and Europe, the First World War, the Russian caricature, the press, the popular culture, the Russian identity, the image of enemy.

The article discusses the prerevolutionary history of reception of image of the “Russian bear” in Russia. The author points out that the image was negative in years the Crimean War and ambivalent in the revolution 1905 – 07, but during World War I (pre-February period) the figure of “Russian bear” served as a patriotic symbol.

pdf (Russian)

R. Bird Ursus Sovieticus

Keywords: image, the human, Dem’ian Bednyi, Andrei Platonov, Aleksandr Medvedkin, Kornei Chukovsky, «The Stolen Sun»

What do we learn from thinking about the USSR through its near anagram: the bear (ursus in Latin)? Central to the Soviet project was liberation from the image, understood as the capture of a being, its full identification and taming. Based on Kornei Chukovsky’s Stolen Sun, the author argues that the Soviet bear’s role is, by making nature possible again, to bring new humanity into visibility.

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U. Stohler The function of the bear in Boris Polevoi’s Story About A Real Man

Key words: bear, Russia, socialist realism, modernization, Boris Polevoi, Jack London, adventure stories, forest, pilot, wilderness, survival, Stalinism.

The article „The Function of the Bear in Boris Polevoi´s Story about a Real Man“ by U. Stohler argues that the figure of the bear, as manifested in this Socialist Realist novel, on the one hand epitomizes the notion of wilderness that the Soviets´ efforts to modernize the country tried to overcome, on the other hand it allegorises the disruption of the natural order that the Second World War inflicted on Russia. These functions of the symbol of the bear emerge when we constrast Polevoi´s novel with Jack London´s short story «Love of Live», by which it was probably heavily inspired. As numerous parallels between the two works suggest, Polevoi´s novel may be regarded as a Russian version of London´s well-known short story, written with the goal of developing a Soviet tradition of adventure stories: whereas London´s main protagonist has to fight a wolf in order to survive in the wilderness, the life of Polevoi´s leading character depends on his ability to kill a bear and to avoid transforming himself into a bear-like creature while at the same time maintaing some features typical for a Soviet fighter pilot

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M. Timofeev “Red” bear from the Bolsheviks’ country: An Essay

Key words: the «Soviet bear», the «Red bear», popular culture, sots art, visual representations

The essay deals with comparison of visual images of the bear in the Western and Soviet cultures. Meanwhile the Western caricatures and comics represented the bear as a terrible and fierce beast, the Soviet culture produced the images of peaceful and friendly bears (or more often of bear cubs). In the post-Cold war period the Soviet «Red bear» turns into a character of the pop-culture both in Russia and abroad.

pdf (Russian)

L. Kouznetsova The Bear-Turnskin in the Russian cinema: transformation of the image

Key words: cinema, movie, bear, turnskin, werewolf, beast, human being

The article is devoted to the evolution of human–bear and bear–human image in the Russian cinema. A semiotic status of the bear in Soviet and Post-Soviet movies is as follows: the bear turns out to be a kind of human Doppelgänger, the main enemy and an embodiment of the non-human & uncanny. On the other hand, he marks a boundary between the human and the non-human, the nature and the social sphere, the moral and the immoral.

pdf (Russian)

M. Voroshilova The image of Winnie-the-Pooh in contemporary Russian political caricature

Key words: Political caricature, visual precedency, image of the bear, Winnie-the-Pooh, Dmitry Medvedev

The article deals with uses of the image of Winnie-the-pooh in contemporary Russian political caricature. The caricaturists employ this image to represent «United Russia» and Dmitry Medvedev, the former Russian President. The author points out that popularity of Winnie-the-pooh’s image is caused by two reasons: first, that image has big precendency in Russian culture; second, importance of the image of a bear in political communication in Russia.

pdf (Russian)

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