S . Vershinin The image of the GDR in the soviet periodical press in the 1950S – the 1970S: the view from above and from below
The author outlines two stages of analysis of relations between the USSR and the GDR in the Soviet periodical press; the first stage (the 1950s – the 1960s) was characterized by the positioning of the USSR’s supremacy in all spheres of life in the GDR; during the second stage (the 1970s – the late 1980s) the cooperation between the sides had been emphasized. The article characterizes the difference between the ideological image of the GDR in the Soviet press and the perception of the GDR in the historical and daily consciousness of the USSR’s citizens, the existence of an inconsistent combination of distancing and aspiration for friendship with the population of the GDR in political journalism.
Key words: social-historical distance, the USSR’s supremacy over the GDR, stereotypes of perception, new people, historical analogies
I. Gewinner Gender stereotypes: women stereotypes in popular women’s magazines in the USSR and the GDR
In the USSR, media in general and print magazines, in particular, have been designed to create views, patterns of behavior, cultural norms and practices of consumption. Thus, in Soviet Russia, propaganda stereotypes of the new Soviet women throughout decades maintained the image of an “emancipated” woman, i.e. an employed woman with other duties like unpaid housework and child-rearing. In this regard, the images of women of Soviet Russia featured ambivalence of gender orientation of clothes and behavioral roles. They were being reproduced from generation to generation, according to the gender schema theory by S. Bem (1981). This article aims at revealing whether images of women in print magazines are consistent with pictures of Soviet women in other socialist countries, in particular, in the GDR. Thus, I wish to discuss the transfer of patterns of behavior and consumption in print magazines in the «developed socialism», which corresponds to the period of the 1970s. To what extent do magazines affect women in a unified way? Are the images of women dramatically different in popular magazines in other (capitalist) countries? The findings indicate a discrepancy between women’s images in Soviet Russia and East Germany.
Key words: images, gender stereotypes, popular women magazines, USSR, GDR.
T.A. Mishchenko Toys from the GDR in the range of the soviet goods of the 1970S (on the base of the memoires of collectors and bloggers)
In 1965-1975, the USSR changed the approach to planning, design and production of toys. The analysis of articles in the journal «Preschool education» points to the emergence of new aesthetic, didactic, educational requirements for the toy. The range of the toys, manufactured by the domestic industry, increases in 2.5 times. However, the toy of the GDR remained the dream of a Soviet child of 1970′s. Blogs and reviews from the collectors and the visitors of exhibitions (improvised and museum) have back memories of the toy from the GDR, who had “the effect of magic”: technically sophisticated, driven, demountable, or comely, pleasant, aesthetic.
Key words: dolls, technically-sophisticated toys, toy industry, design, GDR, USSR
J. Levchenko Discs-mediators: non-academic observations of the phenomenon of the socialist states’ gramophone records production in the late USSR
The present essay considers a cultural reception of gramophone records produced in the Warsaw Pact members by the Soviet youth. Unlike rare and deficient goods from the capitalist world, mainly restricted for distribution, gramophone LPs and the supporting printed materials played a significant role in informing and spreading of international trends behind the rusting Iron Curtain and, last but not least, contributed to its erosion. The free genre selected for the text allows hybridizing the approaches of description, thus the research materials are being combined here with the author’s personal views and memoirs.
Key words: gramophone culture, cover design, censorship in the USSR, the history of youth riots, anthropology of everyday life
D. Chavdarova Poetical mythologization of bulgarian import in the USSR: three poems
The text considers the mythologization of Bulgarian import in the USSR in the poetry from the Soviet era and the beginning of the 20th century, as a symbol of Bulgarian-Russian camaraderie: in a poem by V. Savelev a connection is discovered between the mythologization of Bulgarian tomatoes and some ideologemes of the official political discourse, while a poem by I. Kravtchenko seems to situate Bulgarian cognac in the same order with other signs of Bulgaria (towns, rivers, people), reflecting on imported goods as a means of narrowing the distance with the foreign country. Alongside, attention is paid to another semantics of Bulgarian imported goods in a poem by Y.Brodsky, where the names of “Slantze” and “Shipka” cigarettes, recalling the idea of the Soviet lifestyle, become signs of two different worlds, and lose their meaning of “Bulgarian”.
Key words: Bulgaria, the Soviet Union, import, poetical mythologization
A.Y. Dudchik Foreign students as cultural mediators? (On the material of joint study at philosophical department of the Belarusian state university in the 1970S – THE 1980S)
The article presents the analysis of an image of a foreign student from the CMEA countries in the Soviet Union, based on the questionnaires and interviews of a number of students and lecturers of the philosophical department of the Belarusian State University in the 1970s — the 1980s. The process of communication between the Soviet and the foreign students is represented in the context of cultural transfer research; the figure of a foreign student is represented as a cultural mediator, placed in the area of communications between cultures and participating actively in this process. The peculiarities of behavior and communication of foreign students during the study at the university and everyday life are explicated; some information about the further communications between the graduates of the philosophical department is presented.
Key words: foreign students, students from countries of the CMEA, cultural transfer, cultural mediator, Marxist-Leninist philosophy.
G. Yudin, Y. Koloshenko Strategies of tourist experience production in a small town: Local community and symbolic construction in Myshkin
This paper considers the role of local community in the development of tourist industry in small towns. What is the function of the local community in city brands construction and creation of museums and other tourist attractions? What is the influence of such innovations on the social life of a small city? The authors analyze the case of successful development of tourism in the city of Myshkin and discern several strategies of tourist experience production adopted by the local officials and activists. Special attention is paid to the role of the local community in implementation of these strategies by the political leaders and to the tactics of presentation of this community. The combination of different strategies creates spatial, symbolic and economic conditions favorable for the development of tourism, but at the same time entails ambiguous consequences for the local community.
Keywords: town, tourism, community, authenticity, tradition, constructivism, phenomenological philosophy
A. Maksimova Forms and consequences of museumification of a small town: cases of Myshkin and Kargopol
In recent decades the proliferation of museums and the transformation of their activities have become the subjects of debate in the western research. However, there are few studies aimed at understanding of museumification process in Russia. The study of the phenomenon of museumification is relevant due to orientation of the province at tourism development as the means of regional development. The author analyzes the role of museums in the local community and in the attraction of tourists and describes the changes in urbane space and temporal order of social life as the effects of museumification of Russian small towns. On the base of empirical observations the author emphasizes the most significant forms of museumification and defines the limits of this process: everyday practices and the difficult past seem to be its impediments. The research is based on the data collected during the field work in the towns Myshkin and Kargopol.
Keywords: museum, museumification, town, community, tourism
M. Timofeev Museumification of the USSR
The author analyzes the ways of presenting of the carried out projects aimed at museumification of the Soviet cultural heritage. The study offers the possible approaches to museumification of “the Soviet” in Russian provinces. Besides, the author conducts a comparative analysis of museum practices in Eastern Europe and Russia. The author points out the local resources which can be used nowadays in order to actualize the Soviet discourse and attract attention to them. The study analyzes the approaches ascribing the popularity of “Soviet” museum projects to nostalgia. The author enumerates the opportunities and ways which can be used to attract the youth. Attention is also paid to the role of the “analog” and the “digital” methods in the creation of museum exhibitions. The variants of a system strategy of museumification of the Soviet heritage at the local, regional, and federal levels are presented in the article.
Key words: museumification, semiosis, “analog” and “digital” museum practice, sovietness, the provinces, the USSR
M. Kuzybaeva From the history of exhibition activity in Russian province of the late XIXth century
General scientific and industrial exhibitions in Russia included sections on medicine and public health. They preceded creation of branch museums. The author for the first time reconstructs the development of medical expositions in the late XIXth century on the base of the published catalogues and sources; analyzes the organization of exhibitions, methods of materials presenting, and popularization of medical collection and scientific discoveries. The initiative to organize such exhibitions often came from medical professors. Generally, the medical exhibitions movement played an important role in the development of preventive medical care and the foundation of many collections of medical devices and materials in historical and medical museums.
Keywords: a scientifically-industrial exhibition, an exposition, medico sanitary business, methods of medical collections exhibiting , museum items, medical work, replicas, models, diagrams, photo, museumification of natural objects.
O. Reut, T. Teterevlyova The Heritage of the Born-Digital Urban Everyday Life
The paper discusses the conventional nature of preserving the digital-born heritage in the environment of the modern mediapolis. The principal incompleteness, multiplicity of replications and, hence, the limitation of “authenticity” of historical sources actualize the problems of their museumification.
Keywords: mediapolis, new media, born-digital heritage of the everyday life
P. Bakumov IMPERO SENZA CONFINI: The influence of universalism on Italian public discourse
The article scrutinizes the notion “Impero senza confini”(Empire without borders), its history and place within Italian public discourse. The expression appeared at the first time in the writings of Virgil and ever since is subjected to changes representing national characteristics of Italian people. However, central meaning laid down in Ancient Rome has not changed during history: the concept of universalism as cultural dominance over others. Gradually an expression turned into a notion. Impero senza confini is the last and the most modern variant of it, not limited by political or historical connotations. Considering sociopolitical peculiarities of modern era, the notion is used in a wide range of cases and is commonly recognized in Italian colloquial cultural environment.
Key words: empire, imperial attitudes, cultural nationalism, universalism, Ancient Rome, Italy, fascism, blogosphere
O. Erdman Cultural heritage of province in the practices of school museums (Ershichskiy district of Smolensk region case study)
The article considers the problem of the cultural identity and heritage of the region preservation with the help of school museums. On the basis of local museums activity analysis the author comes to the conclusions about the discovery of the traditional symbolical components of village socio-cultural environment by their founders; they give the villagers the opportunity to know themselves and to assert their identity. The article shows the transition of nationally representative symbols from the scope of material of the ethnic group to the spiritual culture. The author assesses the effectiveness of the measures aimed at further ‘museumification’, video documentation and scientific data processing, promotion of the progressive experience. The author defines the ways of solution of ethnopedagogical problems identified in the principle of «belonging to the roots».
Key words: cultural heritage, ethnical pedagogy, school museum of local history, village identity, nationally representative symbols.
L. N. Khakhovskaya Love relationships in conditions of unfreedom (fragments of personal life in the archival sources of Dalstroy period)
The paper contains the study of privacy, describes love feelings and emotions of people in the conditions of the Kolyma prison. Love relationships between free people and prisoners of Sevvostlag (late 1940s.) are considered on the base of archival sources. The strict ideological control over personal feelings of members of the CPSU(b) and the deliberate shift of their life priorities are shown.
Key words: Sevvostlag, Dalstroy, Kolyma, prison, Elgen, prisoners, love relationships, personal life.
V. A. Sukovataya, E.G. Fisun The female bodies and the imperial fantasies: harem as a territory of the Orient Other
The article is devoted to the research of harem and Orient women’s images in the West European painting of the XIX century and its interpretation in the context of the post-colonial theory and feministic criticism. Cultural national and gender peculiarities of the representation of the East in colonial consciousness of the European empires in the XIX century were studied on the base of artistic images of harem life. It was defined that the specificity of the woman’s representation in the East in the artistic consciousness of the Western Europe is connected with the political-ideological strategies of imperial national project of the XIX century and with establishment of European cultural, political and gender identity. An attempt was made to examine the Orient as a defined gender-legal model of the Other, which reproduced ideological searches, cultural-national values of Europe, the European cultural unconscious, in artistic images of the «Orient harem». It is concluded that the colonial discourse in European painting in the XIX century demonstrated European notions about social and legal status of women of own national culture which had been fixed in the images of the «Orient harem».
Key words: gender, sexuality, harem, Orient, post-colonial discourse, gender identity, «masculine gaze», classic painting, visual arts studies.
Ch. I. Ildarkhanova Social reality of a country family in the republic of tatarstan: a municipal dimension
The article considers the results of the sociological research of the Centre for Family and Demography of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, reflecting the state of household and socio-demographic resources of a country family, and cooperation of villagers of Drozhzhanovskiy municipal region of the Republic of Tatarstan. The author presents life and agricultural strategies of active rural population. A country family is considered in the light of the achievement of its sustainability by means of various social practices, including the risky ones, like commutation. Modeling of social reality on the example of a municipal region of the Republic of Tatarstan reflects the integration of innovative approaches of housing and agriculture. Centering of all existing and appearing networks of a country family fundamentally changes the logic and the value component of the place of territorial units of the region. Contrary to the logic that presupposes the assessment of the value of an object according to its scale, the author supposes that a village modernization assessment should start with the lowerest part, not on the macro- but on the micro-level.
Key words: municipal region, country land, country population, local community, volunteer activities, cooperation, resource potential, the Centre for Family and Demography of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, the Republic of Tatarstan
V. Gutyra Gender stereotypes formation among urban youth in high school
This article is devoted to the question of gender stereotypes formation among elder pupils. Are there any definite social roles of men and women at the modern society? Are young people ready to follow these set patterns? These very questions are the basis in this research and give the possibility to find out the beginning of social stereotypes formation among youth. On the base of the modern concept of gender theory and the principles of postmodernism we try to study the processes that take place at the postpuberal phase, at the period when new age identity such as youth is being formed. The results of the study give the possibility to retrace the process of gender roles formation and to find out their importance for the respondents: whether they are satisfied and agree with the existing stereotypes in the society or not.
Keywords: Youth, postmodernism, identity, gender theory, stereotype, social roles.
E. Golovneva Notional images of «region» concept in academic discourse
This paper deals with systematization of the main approaches to definition of the concept “region”. On the base of the analysis of academic discourse the author differenciates the conceptual images of a region, problematizes the role of a region in the set of spatial relations and designates the theoretical background for the relevant definition of a region today.
Keywords: region, regionalism, discourse, space
V.V.Kornev Ideology upon the end of ideology: In the Mazes of the Modern Political Consciousness
The article covers criticism of the «ideology death» theories and studies various forms of ideological deception and self-deception and mechanisms of the fictitious escape from ideology. Abstract and mythologized ideas of the ideology functions are contrasted with several principles describing the actual analysis of the actual ideology. The dialectics of growth of ideology knowledge is developed from the principles of the general philosophical epistemology. The article also substantiates the idea of necessity of the “molecular analysis” of ideological structures in everyday life—in particular pieces of advertisement, cinema, everyday language and consciousness.
Key words: ideology, end of ideology, analysis of ideology, simulation, simulacrum, policy, politics, power, everyday life, alienation, dialectics, self-deception, knowledge, mythology, culture
V.V. Kornev Capitalism as a character (Neo-Marxist Analysis of «Cosmopolis» by David Cronenberg)
The article covers self-portrait images of capitalism in literature and cinema. Some important objective laws of capital, power and money functioning in the modern world are established through the example of «Cosmopolis», the similarly named both book and film. The Marxist concept “alienation” is studied with regard to fantasy and worldview of a present-day person. The study of artistic images of capitalism (as a social vampire, necrophile and the architect of «the Matrix») passes into the analysis of inexorable logic of the capital circulation. Yet, is this logic strong and eternal?
Key words: capitalism, Marxism, system, matrix, fantasy, desire, alienation, power, money, cinema, science fiction, history
V.V. Kornev Common ideology (Dedication to the 50th Anniversary of «Ordinary Fascism» by Mikhail Romm)
The article studies two works belonging to political cinema «Ordinary Fascism» by Mikhail Romm and «Die Welle» by Dennis Gansel) as examples of superficial criticism of the Nazi ideology. Yet, a true analysis of the fascist propaganda mechanisms needs shifting the point of view to the nature of ideology. The idea of strictly external and forcible methods of ideological influence should be contrasted with the idea of ideology as a form of everyday life. It is platitude, ordinariness, natural character of ideological structures and even the ugliest aspects of ideology that need understanding.
Key words: ideology, analysis of ideology, policy, politics, political mythology, propaganda, manipulation, fascism, neo-fascism, totalitarianism, liberalism, nationalism, individualism, collectivism, political cinematography, banality of evil, everyday life
I.Y. Koriukhina, V.V. Kuklina INTERACTION OF CITY AND VILLAGE IN SPACES OF SUBURBS (CASE OF IRKUTSK)
Key words: trialectics of spatiality, suburbs, security, local community
Interaction between City and Village is explored in the article on the example of suburbs of Irkutsk city. The Edward Soja’s concept of “trialectics of spatiality” has been used as a framework according to which perceived, conceived, and lived spaces of suburbs are examined. Statistics, Internet-sites on analysis of realty in Irkutsk and sites of cottage villages in suburbs, interviews with experts as well as the authors’ visual observations have been the basis for analysis. We think such characteristics as security and freedom have special significance in the process of constructing the space of suburbs. Different means and technologies are developed in order of their achievement in perceived space, their values are verbalized in conceived space, but need in them is experienced in lived space.
E.V. Polukhina THE PECULIARITIES OF SOCIAL ORDER IN THE SPACE OF POST-SOVIET DACHA: WORK, GENERATIONS, AND GENDER
Keywords: house work, gender, dacha, dacha work, dacha practices, leisure practices, gender regime, work regime, generations, escape attemps, social order, case study methodology
The article attempts to describe the social order of the post-soviet dacha space (summer country house): an organized system of relations determining the interactions of its members. The main research subject is dacha practices. The article is based on a field research applied in the case study strategy. The post-soviet dacha is represented as a social institution, an element of urban residents’ sustainable social development. It encourages the creation of stable social relationships, namely of family and neighbors. Being an urban family’s local territory, it allows to realize a family project (gender roles and age-specific needs). The article discloses the ambivalent nature of dacha work which generates a multiple-meaning continuum from a type of labor as a ‘burden’ to a unique leisure activity. It is demonstrated how the dacha space gives its inhabitants freedom from the urbanized pace of life, while on the other hand suggesting its own social order.
E.S.Kotova GARDEN-CITY: AN ALTERNATIVE CONCEPT OF URBAN ENVIRONMENT FORMATION
Key words: garden-city, Omsk, conversion of the public space, architectural landscape gardening projects, Flora, promotion of gardening, the organizers of green building
The article examines the development of the urban concept of «Garden-cities» created by E. Howard, and the reflection of this concept in the Russian architectural projects. The author attempts to reflect the conversion of the «garden-city» concept from the specific characteristics of urban development projects to the metaphor or the title. On the example of the transformation of Omsk in the «garden-city» the author reveals the relationship of the propaganda of «green building» with the landscape gardening management.
I.N. Kodina «NOT BY BREAD ALONE…»: PRACTICES OF VILLAGERS’ LABOR BEHAVIOR (PARFEN’EVO CASE)
Keywords: village, Parfen’evo, labor, employment, labor practices
V. Ilyin DUALITY OF STRUCTURES OF INDIVIDUAL CONSUMPTION IN HISTORICAL DYNAMICS: FROM SOVIET TO POST-SOVIET SOCIETY
Key words: structure, practices, consumerism, consumption, resistance
The article studies consumption in Soviet and post-Soviet society in the context of its dual structure. The analysis is based on the assumption that consumption always occurs in the context of existing culture and ideology and is a part of social reproduction. Every type of social reproduction features particular type of individuality. Ideally, a person with such a type of individuality is a function of a social system, i.e. an ideal consumer. However, in reality people are reluctant to turn into the ideal consumers who ensure the interests of the existing system and powerful groups who control social reproduction. Activity of these reluctant consumers results in various resistance practices and consumer culture that corresponds to them. As a result, the structures acquire the dual character and serve as a sustainable form of consumer behavior of those citizens who freely materialize their needs within an available amount of resources. This is, however, not an organized protest, but rather an individual form of resistance that the sociologists call “the art of the weak”.
M. Autio, E. Heiskanen, V. Heinonen NARRATIVES OF ‘GREEN’ CONSUMERS — THE ANTIHERO, THE ENVIRONMENTAL HERO AND THE ANARCHIST
Key words: green consumerism, subject positions, youth, Finland
Environmental policy makers and marketers are attracted by the notion of green consumerism. Yet, green consumerism is a contested concept, allowing for a wide range of translations in everyday discursive practices. This paper examines how young consumers construct their images of green consumerism. It makes a close reading of three narratives reflecting available subject positions for young green consumers: the Antihero, the Environmental Hero and the Anarchist. It reveals problems in the prevailing fragmented, gendered and individualistic notions of green consumerism, and discusses implications for policy and marketing practitioners.
O. Gromasheva, G. Brunori PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSUMPTION: FAVOURABLE ENVIRONMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF SHORT FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS?
Key words: short food supply chains, alternative food networks, local products, reconnection of farmers and consumers
Currently in developed countries there is growth of initiatives which are aimed to reconnect farmers and consumers whose relationships in the last century became as distant and detached as they had never been before (due to industrial food production, centralization of the market, etc.). The state-of-art and recent trends in agricultural production, distribution and consumption in Russia, and St. Petersburg in particular, are analyzed in the article (mainly from the prospective of supply and demand for local products). The aim of the paper is to understand whether the current conditions are favorable towards development of such reconnection initiatives, which in the western literature are most frequently referred to as “short food supply chains” (or “alternative food networks”).
P. Ermolaeva NEW TRENDS IN GREEN CONSUMPTION IN RUSSIA AS CONSEQUENCES OF SPORT MEGA-EVENTS (A CASE STUDY OF THE 2013 SUMMER UNIVERSIADE IN KAZAN)
Key words: mega-events, green consumption, post-Soviet space, Universiade, green behavior, ecological attitudes
The article investigates the main trends in green consumption in Russia that were inspired by sport megaevents. The analysis is based on the case study of Universiade, which took place in the city of Kazan in 2013. The results of this empirical study confirm that the dwellers of Kazan have become more aware of green consumption and the green consumer practices have started to spread after the Universiade had been finished (for instance, waste sorting and ecologization of way of life and leisure). The author of the article links these trends to the increased availability of urban “green” infrastructure; the Year of Eco-culture that was held in Russia and promoted ecofriendly ideas; the local governments’ reorientation towards international environmental standards that have been maintained in other host-cities of international sport events; the popularization of post-materialistic values; globalization and increased population mobility; and growing value that is ascribed to health as symbolic capital.
I. Zadorin, D. Maltseva, A. Homyakova, L. Shubina ALTERNATIVE RURAL SETTLEMENTS IN RUSSIA: SPONTANEOUS INTERNAL EMIGRATION OR DELIBERATE TRANSFER TO THE FUTURE
Key words: ecology, ecovillages, alternative settlements, sustainable development, internal emigration, simplification, downshifting, ideological communities, the New Age religion, kin estates
This article presents the results of the study «Ecovillages as a form of internal emigration: motivation and prospects of expansion», which was conducted by ZIRCON Research Group in Autumn 2012. This research studies new phenomenon of alternative rural settlements (in particular, ecovillages and kin estates settlements). These settlements are considered as countercultural movement. Yet, they have potential to generate innovative practices related to sustainable development of society and nature. The article aims to answer the question whether the ecovillages and kin estate settlements can be transformed from marginalized to influential social phenomenon. The authors also investigate the peculiarities of these settlements and their meanings for participants: are these settlements a way of internal immigration because of political reasons or a transfer to well-being and quality of life?
N. Zaritskaya ALTERNATIVE LIFESTYLE PRACTICES IN CONTEMPORARY UKRAINIAN SOCIETY (A CASE STUDY IN KYIV)
Key words: alternative lifestyles, lifestyle practices, voluntary mobility, downshifting, freelance
This article presents findings of a case study of alternative partial downshifting lifestyle practices in contemporary Ukraine. It is based on materials of personal interviews conducted in the city of Kyiv. Partial downshifting stems from choice of a freelance job and appears as one of the most popular strategies of transition to alternative lifestyles. This transition is a deliberate choice based on revision of values, deliberate income reduction, decrease of working hours and increase of free time, changes in consumption patterns, and so on. Findings of the case study show that the main reasons of partial downshifting are dissatisfaction with one’s life in general and his or her job in particular, lack of free time for oneself and family, and desire to be more independent.
E. Polukhina, A. Strelnikova FROM OVERCONSUMPTION TO SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION: ONLINE GIVEAWAY COMMUNITIES
Key words: giveaway, Internet community, consumption, informal economy, trust, redistribution of resources
The article focuses on the phenomenon of online giveaway communities. These are the Internet communities by means of which participants can share or exchange consumer goods (books, baby stuff, clothes, jewelry, dishes among other things) free of charge. The authors carry out a descriptive analysis (netnography) of several online giveaway communities in Russia investigating the practices and reasons for exchange as well as structure and consequences of this phenomenon in Russia.
E. Bocharova, O. Echevskaya COLLABORATIVE CONSUMPTION IN CONTEMPORARY RUSSIA: FORMS OF ORGANIZATION, PRACTICES OF PARTICIPATION (A CASE STUDY OF THE «DARUDAR» COMMUNITY)
Key words: sociology of consumption, collaborative consumption, alternatives to consumerism, sharing economy
The article analyzes collaborative consumption, the practice, which is new for Russian society, and – as part of the “sharing economy” – alternative to the ideals of consumer society. Methodological foundations of the research are grounded in the four principles of the sharing economy: “critical mass”, “idling capacity”, “belief in commons” and “trust between strangers”. Based on the interviews with participants of popular Internet communities for collaborative consumption in Russia, we discuss the contexts of the development of collaborative consumption, forms of organization, practices and motives of the participants to join the community. The interviews demonstrate that this is the idling capacity, not the intention to save money that drives the development of collaborative consumption in Russia. At the same time, collaborative consumption is seen as a “healthy alternative” to consumerism, and as a more efficient way of using the idling capacity of things and the resources of community.
T. Bulakh CHASING THE BRANDS, OR REVIVAL OF “CONSUMER SAFARI” IN THE SECOND-HAND CONSUMPTION IN CONTEMPORARY UKRAINE
Key words: second-hand, consumption, social class, social status, Ukraine, postsocialism
The article outlines interpretations of second-hand consumption in contemporary Ukraine. Deriving from the data of ethnographic research, the author argues that for the middle-class citizens in Ukraine second-hand stores and markets have become an alternative way to obtain Western goods as these goods possess a special value in postsocialist context. Although the practice of second-hand consumption resembles a Soviet-style consumer quest, the meanings of second-hand consumption have changed. The practice of second-hand consumption highlights challenges that Ukrainian middle-class consumers face in current socio-economic context.
Y. Egereva, O. Gurova “HUNTERS” AND THE SECOND-HAND CONSUMPTION IN ST. PETERSBURG
Key words: second-hand consumption, prosumers, creative consumption, Internet, youth
This article discusses a new youth group in the sphere of second-hand consumption in St. Petersburg — «hunters». «Hunters» are young people who search for things in second-hand stores or at flea markets with an aim to resell them through social media or online shops. Drawing from data of personal interviews, we consider social characteristics of “hunters” as well as the meanings and practices of their activities. The activities of “hunters” are not limited to being merely resellers. They invest their taste and cultural capital when searching for material objects (mostly clothing, shoes and accessories) and thus operate as cultural intermediaries. They also act as prosumers, or creative consumers, who take part in production and consumption of things simultaneously.
I. Bezman FROM «MEGA» MALL TO SECOND-HAND STORE: YOUTH CONSUMPTION OF SECOND-HAND CLOTHING IN ST. PETERSBURG
Key words: second hand, youth, consumption, markets, St. Petersburg, individualization
This article examines the meanings of second-hand consumption in the city of St. Petersburg. The data were collected from observation and semi-structured interviews with young consumers and experts. The findings concern peculiarities of second-hand retail spaces in the city, specific features of used clothes attractive to consumers and reasons explaining why young people in St. Petersburg chooses consumption of used material objects.
V. Treshchev RUSSIAN DO-IT-YOURSELF CULTURE AND MUSIC CONSUMPTION
Key words: DIY culture, music industry, consumption, anti consumption, protest, prosumer, musical release, gift economy, network, LP records
In this article the consumption of music is analyzed in the context of do-it-yourself (DIY) culture. DIY is a creative culture of music production that is opposed to mainstream production of music by corporations and industry. The author unfolds the notion of DIY culture in the sphere of music. DYI emerges as a form of protest to the mainstream music culture and to capitalism. Drawing from data of autoethnography, the author investigates the experience of participation in DIY music culture in Russia, DIY practices and their meanings from the participants’ point of view.
M. Erofeeva, A. Fedorov PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF IMAGES IN DIGITAL EPOCH
Key words: amateur photo pictures, image, consumption, production, consumer society, digital revolution, digital technology, social networks, lomography, Instagram.
The article traces the changes in everyday practices of production and consumption of amateur photographs at the beginning of the XXIst century. The authors argue that transformations were caused by a massive shift towards use of digital cameras and by rapid development of Web 2.0. As a result, the number of amateur photographs posted in Internet has dramatically increased. This led to criticism resulted in uprising of specific resistance practices. Among the resistance practices are return to film-type cameras and the lomography movement.
E. Negrov CONSUMERISM IN LOYALIST DISCOURSE OF MODERN RUSSIA: PARADOXES OF INTERACTION
Key words: political discourse, loyalist discourse, consumerism, modern political process
This article explores the interpretations of consumerism in loyalist discourse of contemporary Russia. The empirical data were drawn from the local Saint-Petersburg newspaper “Smena”, which stands on loyal positions towards current political regime in Russia. The analyzed data covered the years 2012-2013. The study reveals various interpretations of consumer practices in the loyalist discourse. For example, the discourse accepts conspicuous consumption among political elite and, at the same time, criticizes similar practices among opposition. The conclusion drawn by author states that loyalist media, on the one hand, have to focus on the Western-oriented consumer needs of electoral majority and, at the same time, to follow isolationist tendencies developed in official political discourse in Russia.
K.E. Baldin Industrial development and educational space of the provincial city at the turn of the 20th century (by the example of Ivanovo-Voznesensk)
Key words: industrial revolution, textile industry, technological progress, division into districts, railways, demography, educational space, professional education, business in pre-revolutionary Russia
The article is devoted to the features of IvanovoVoznesensk industrial development at the turn of the 20th century. It was one of the biggest industrial centers in pre-revolutionary Russia. The problem and potential analysis of the local textile industry is made. Also it was studied in the connection with IvanovoVoznesensk professional schools activities research. Ivanovo-Voznesensk had more professional schools than contiguous cities.
L.E. Dobreytsina Industrial Museums in Middle Ural: a Tool for Rethinking the Past and an Indicator of the Present in the Culture of Industrial Ural
Key words: industrial museum, industrial heritage, industrial landscape, museification
The article explores the aspects of development and operation of the industrial museums in Middle Ural, i.e. in the towns of Solikamsk, Nizhny Tagil, and Polevskoy. It contains the description of their present conditions, their popularity, plans and projects for further development. Analysis of an image of an industrial museum as it exists in the minds both of local residents and visitors is followed by the attempt to clarify the symbolic function of an industrial museum as a tool for shaping the image of Ural for contemporary age. Also, the article delves into the contradictions between the actual situation of industrial museums and the declarations of their importance and usage made by the local official media (based on the case of Demidov Park project). The main problem here is the failure, both by authorities and by local residents, to comprehend the role and the place of such museums in the future development of local and regional culture; as a result, we can witness underfunding and dismal material conditions of the industrial museums in Solikamsk and Nizhny Tagil, lack of adequate advertising, no interesting projects implemented at these plants and so on.
O.V. Lysikova Industrial tourism in the urban space: Saratov case study
Key words: industrial tourism, social boundaries of memory, cultural tourism in Saratov, undustrial heritage of Saratov
The article examines the characteristics and prospects of industrial tourism in Saratov. The author carries out a comparative analysis of industrial excursion practices in other cities, and reveals the identity of the local industrial heritage of Saratov. Empirical basis is the results of the author’s research based on the methods of case study, comparative analysis of information resources, personal interview. Industrial tourism is a resource of urban regeneration and the local citizens’ quality of life improvement. Local territories for industrial use can be converted into places of attraction for cultural tourism. Industrial history open-air museums, excursions for locals, and weekend tours for visitors with specially planned routes are promising spheres of industrial tourism in Saratov. Regional studies promote the expansion of the social boundaries of memory, and industrial culture objects and history of a particular city popularization.
N.V. Gonina City dwellers’ sociocultural identity transformation under conditions of industrialization in the late 1950s — the early 1980s (based on the Angara-Yenisei region data)
Keywords: sociocultural identity, city, AngaraYenisei region, industrialization, modernization, population
The industrialization developed in the late XX century in Angara-Yenisei region promoted not only the territory development and the cities growth but also considerable sociocultural changes. In the cities of the region transition from traditional consciousness to the industrial one goes at an accelerated pace. The important role in this process was played by the large industrial enterprises of the Union value which had defined urban environment development parameters of that period of time. As a result of industrialization and urbanization of the region one can observe the transition from paternalism and collectivism to individualization, understanding of personality worthiness, material needs priority growth. These tendencies are of fragmentary and changeable character. Features of traditional, industrial and post-industrial society in the framework of the Soviet system are interwoven with polychromatic picture of sociocultural identity of a transition period. They gained the greatest expressiveness in the regional centers, the smallest level — in the peripheral not industrial cities.
E.M. Zhidkova Faktory outskirts: from the «man of labour» heroization towards the quest for new senses
Key words: man of labour, urbanization, Soviet identity, urban way of life dissemination, fight against cultural backwardness, factory namelessness, forced labour, prisoners, war memories, mythologization, retrospective character of modern cultural policy
The article retraces the factory outskirts and the big city enterprises role transformation. Being closed and classified “mail-boxes” in the Soviet period of history, nowadays they are becoming a new urban identity and self-representation keystone. The article also deals with the modern cultural policy of the city, and its factory history use in the attempts to reconcile it with the common cultural and historical heritage – the Soviet past and its achievements. The author is interested in the transition from the classified information to transparency, search for the new historic, cultural and touristic dominants, new regional identity, resulting in Samara naming the «reserve capital» in the period of the Great Patriotic War, and even the space capital of modern Russia. As the sense-forming moments of the Modern history two holidays are chosen — the Victory Day and the Cosmonautics Day. These are the uniting ties which allow the congeners to think of pride and honour and the feel their involvement in the Big History.
I.N. Stasj Urbanisation as economy: departmental towns of oil producing regions of the Western Siberia (1960’s — 1980’s)
Key words: departments, departmental towns, oilindustry workers towns, urban environment, identity, towns’ resettlements system, urbanisation.
In this article the urbanisation process in the oil and gas producing regions of the Western Siberia in the period of oil and gas exploration (1960’s — 1980’s) is analysed. The region urbanisation is treated on three meta-levels – the organisation of towns’ resettlement system, urban environment formation, towns’ identity designing. Interaction and confrontation between main subjects of urbanisation – departmental and towns’ elite and discourses – took place exactly on these meta-levels. The author comes to a conclusion that urbanisation of oil and gas producing regions of the Western Siberia was of departmental origin and matter: resettlement system was adjusted to the town-planning experience of departments; urban environment was formed as the mixture of isolated departmental economies; towns served as “seigneurial oikos”. There was no towns’ identity, and identification of towns’ citizens was principally based upon the industrial characteristic.
Zh.B. Solomina The industrial cities of the northwestern Russia cultural landscapes peculiarities
Key words: city, village, natural-cultural complex, industrial cities, industrial, cultural landscape
The author analyses the peculiarities of the northwest Russia industrial cities changes from the point of view of the cultural landscapes concept. The research is based on the space-time analysis of the city territories development. The author focuses on the changes of functions of natural-cultural complexes in the city space.
E.S. Kochukhova The White Tower – Yekaterinburg cultural heritage (re)creation
Key words: The White Tower, objects of cultural heritage, city ruins, recreation of heritage
The article reveals the project units of the cultural heritage object – The Tank Tower – reconstruction. The conceptual integrity of the project and the actual preparation of the architectural memorial for restoration are estimated. On the grounds of this analysis the assumption is made that the events anticipating the White Tower restoration form the community of the citizens who are involved in the heritage recreation and understanding and create the environment which prevents the cultural heritage object from oblivion. The unique complex work aimed at the Tower preservation is considered as a combined result of the actions of the architecture initiative group “Podelniki”.
R.S. Kolokolchikova The exogenous diseases of the population in the industrial cities of the European North of Russia (the late 1960s – the early 1980s)
Key words: industrial cities, exogenous diseases, population migration, social problems, risk factors.
The author reveals the conflicting processes of the controlled Soviet urbanization in the European North of Russia coming out in increased diseases incidence of the population in the industrial cities – engines of industrial development of the region. The risk factors in the cities of those typological groups for the incidence of the sexually transmitted diseases, dynamics and trends of morbidity are analyzed too.
A.E. Levintov Exogenous and endogenous factors of industrial monotowns regeneration
Key words: city space, monoprofile city, Soviet urbanist, industrial, city
The article analyses the peculiarities of the city space formation in Russia. The problems of monoprofile towns creation in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union are stressed. The author offers the typology of Russian cities. The article also outlines certain aspects of economic and socio-demographic problems arisen as a result of the authorities’ hasty policy. Besides the negative facts statement the author offers the possible ways of the issues tackling.
M.G. Meerovitch The secret mainsprings of the Soviet industrialization
Key words: industrialization, political division, socialist city, labour-household collectives, mobilization economics, heavy industry
The article considers the origins of the Stalin’s industrialization programme. The author proves that the industrialization program was based primarily on the aims to create a powerful military-industrial establishment. The article disproves the myth that industrialization was aimed at the Soviet people welfare improvement. The author postulates the forced character of industrial new buildings peopling with the working staff. The bases for political division of the country reformation are revealed.